Ideology

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Adorno et al., 1950[edit]

An organization of opinions, attitudes, and values-a way of thinking about man and society. We may speak of an individual’s total ideology or of his ideology with respect to different areas of social life; politics, economics, religion, minority groups, and so forth.

Adorno, Theodor W., et al. The authoritarian personality. 1950:2.

Parsons, 1951[edit]

A general system of beliefs held in common by the members of a collectivity.

Parsons,Talcott, The social system. 1951:349

Downs, 1957[edit]

A verbal image of the good society and of the chief means of constructing such a society.

Downs, A. An economic theory of democracy. 1957:96

McClosky, 1964[edit]

Systems of belief that are elaborate, integrated, and coherent, that justify the exercise of power, explain and judge historical events, identify political right and wrong, set forth the interconnections (causal and moral)between politics and other spheres of activity, and furnish guides for action.

McClosky, Herbert. "Consensus and ideology in American politics." American Political Science Review 58.02 1964:362

Geertz, 1964[edit]

Maps of problematic social reality and matrices for the creation of collective conscience.

Geertz, Clifford. "Ideology as a cultural system." In The Interpretation of Cultures 1964:220

Mullins, 1974[edit]

A logically coherent system of symbols which, within a more or less sophisticated conception of history, links the cognitive and evaluative perception of ones social condition - especially its prospects for the future — to a program of collective action for the maintenance, alteration, or transformation of society. (Mullins 1974: 235).

Mullins WA. "Sartori's Concept of Ideology: A Dissent and an Alternative" In Wilcox (ed.) Public Opinion and Political Attitudes New York: John Wiley & Son 1974:235